Despite the ease of operation and monitoring, this aeration phase makes ETO impractical in the setting of sterilising flexible endoscopes where a fast turnaround time is desirable. The entire preparation stage is supervised by our personnel to ascertain a perfect blend, with accurate integration of all the spices. Q.-Q. EtO is used in gas form and is usually mixed with other substances, such as CO2 or steam. F. Moerman, K. Mager, in Handbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry (Second Edition), 2016. The potential hazards of EO to people and the environment, such as mutagenicity potential and risks associated with handling a flammable gas, have limited its use.14–16 However, if the recommended practices are followed and current Occupational Safety and Health Administration EO regulations are met, EO can be used safely. Our low temperature grinding process in the state-of-the art machinery help in preserving the fundamental characteristics of the spices viz. EO's microbiocidal activity is a result of alkylation of proteins, DNA, and RNA in microorganisms, which prevents normal cellular metabolism and replication and thus renders affected microbes nonviable.10–12 EO's high reactivity in combination with high diffusivity plays a major role in the inactivation of microorganisms. A variety of microbial reduction techniques are routinely employed within the industry for reduction of pathogens. The main physical parameters to be monitored are temperature and relative humidity. We also perform sterilization of the spices through Ethylene Oxide (ETO) treatment and irradiation. Furthermore, there is evidence that ETO is a carcinogen and can increase the chance of spontaneous miscarriage (Hemminki et al. Atungulu, Z. Pan, in Microbial Decontamination in the Food Industry, 2012. the use of material that has been ETO treated before importation is also illegal). Because EO penetrates materials more readily than steam, a wider variety of materials may be used in packaging items for sterilization and storage. It was initially combined with a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) stabiliser, but following the eradication of CFCs in the 1990s, it has been combined with alternative stabilisers such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC). The commonly used operational ranges for EO concentration, temperature, humidity, and exposure time are 450–1200 mg l−1, 29–65 °C, 45–85%, and 2–5 h, respectively.12. 1982; Salinas et al. The difference being that a three phase cycle does factor in the pre and post exposure phases. M. Mikhail, T. Young, in Decontamination in Hospitals and Healthcare, 2014. G.G. Consequently, methods to kill the organism on spices are used. The use of ethylene oxide for treatment of ground spice is also banned in the United States (Loaharanu, 1994; Fowels et al., 2001). Sterilization with ETO is a low-temperature process (typically between 37 and 63°C) that uses Ethylene Oxide gas to reduce the level of infectious agents. Our sterilization processes deliver products conforming to the stringent norms of microbial loads, while maintaining high quality. A typical three phase ETO sterilization cycle can be summarized as follows: Preconditioning:
There are no reports of postmortem findings in humans with EO intoxication. Our processing locations are state-of-the art, HACCP compliant and BRC certified, manned by a team of well-trained Lean six sigma certified personnel with stellar technical, scientific and food safety knowledge. Due to its high volatility and water solubility, ethylene oxide is not expected to persist in soil or sediments. CFR 180.151 sets an EtO tolerance level for whole and ground spices of 50 ppm. the use of material that has been ETO treated before importation is also illegal). The short-term maximum exposure limit (STMEL) is the average exposure over any 15-min period. European Spice Association Quality Minima Document Rev. Ethylene oxide has been proven to significantly reduce microbial population of bacteria and molds in spices (Leistritz, 1997; Toofanian and Stegeman, 1988).